-The Tudor Dynasty-
Henry Tudor, after winning the Wars of the Roses defeating Richard III, became King as Henry VII; he wasn’t a member of the royal family, so he needed to justify his new dynasty.
They were helped by some writers, like Shakespeare, who wrote a play called ‘Richard III’, where the Tudor dynasty looks noble.
However this dynasty lasted only three generations.
During his reign, Henry VII restored the reputation of the monarch as one who rules, and encouraged trade, making commercial treaties and helped the cloth industry; he even sponsored the voyage of John Cabot in 1497, which led to the discovery of North America.
Henry VII was succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.
During his reign took place the Reformation.
Henry VIII had six wives: for his first three marriages he wanted a male heir; his fourth was for religious politics, his fifth due to aristocratic ambitious and only his sixth brought him peace.
When he died, his son Edward, who was only 9 years old, became King as Edward VI.
During his reign took place the Protestant reformation.
After his reign, Mary I became Queen; she was determined to restore relations with Rome, in order to return to Catholicism, but this idea was unpopular among common people.
Mary I earned the nickname ‘Bloody Mary’, because many Protestants were burned for heresy during her reign.
Mary I was succeeded by Elizabeth I and she became the most popular ruler, in fact she defeated the Spanish Armada, and helped explorations and overseas trade, making England a commercial power; she also took back England to Protestantism.
Parliament also increased its role in the government, because Kings and Queens needed the consent of the members of the parliament to make laws to create the Reformation.