In the ancient Athens, the purpose of the education of youth was that of bring up citizens skilled and well formed in arts and trained to fight.
The girls were allowed to frequent school environment or take lectures, but learned to read and write at home. Until the age of seven, boys learned from their mother or by a male slave.
Subsequently, up to fourteen, they attended a school: the books were very expensive and rare, and the few available were read aloud and students should learn about them making use of their memory.
Musical education and physical education had an important role, because it led to the harmony of soul and body.
On a wooden slat covered in wax, the teacher usually writes with a stylus; the schoolboy then copied and learned by memorizing.
Together they learned flute playing the zither: these instruments were also used to accompany the dances.
A pedagogue or a philosopher, or a senior teacher seems to make sure that the lessons are conducted properly.
The sheepman (the law of the stronger)
In 415 BC the Athenian military expedition was sent against Melo, a small island that is kept neutral. Athens claimed that Melo came in the Delian League, despite the constraints of ethnic kinship with Sparta. The meli invoked the law, justice, the gods; the Athenians considered the sheepman as the standard law that addresses the human history.
Melo was besieged and captured; all the male inhabitants were killed with various weapons, while women and children were taken to Athens and sold into slavery.