In January in Milan and Palermo first fires. In Milan it takes place the strike of smoke and so is ordered the Hungarian and Croatian troops present to smoke in front of the Protestants. It is the first physical discounts. In Palermo instead back Giuseppe La Masa who made contact with Rosolino Pilo planning an insurrection type Giobertian.
E 'but in Europe and particularly in France that the situation falls. The Orleans monarchy force is in fact criticized by many (Legitimists, clerical, Bonapartist, republicans and socialists) and there is also dissatisfaction with the economic situation (agriculture affected by unfavorable years in the industry and there is overproduction and then the result is a financial crisis) .
The spark is the prohibition of electoral banquets. This brings down many streets and so the king asked the National Guard to intervene, which is detached but in favor of the rebels.
The king does take the field the army was not able to resolve the situation. To please the crowd decides to dismiss the prime minister Guizot. The rebels formed a new republican government. The king flees to London and the rebels, victorious, implement various reforms (abolished the death penalty for political crimes, reintroduced the tricolor, decreases the working day, are born of the factories was to ensure the work). The Socialists then invade the constituent assembly which eliminates the factories of state and imposes mandatory conscription. You then decide on a new constitution on the American model and, in choosing the President, the appointment is a surprise to Louis Napoleon who, after ten years as president, becomes Emperor of the French under the name Napoleon III.
In Germany the first movements are there in March in Berlin. Here the uprising is quelled immediately but Frederick of Prussia to please the crowd decides to grant freedom of the press and to convene a popular vote to decide on unification. In 49 it was decided to grant the imperial crown to Frederick, however, does not accept to not undermining relations with Austria.
In Austria, in March, the people rise to request the establishment. Ferdinand I to appease the revolt dismisses Metternich but this news also arise Budapest, Prague, Milan and Venice. There are quarrels especially in Vienna between the various ethnic groups. October 48 Vienna was bombed and Ferdinand, dimisosi, happens Franz Joseph who chooses the parliament and a new constitution.
In Italy many grant the constitution. In Venice, however, with the news of the dismissal of Metternich, the people went under the windows of the governor of Venice to demand the release of political prisoners. These are released and Manin takes control of the situation by declaring the Republic of San Marco. In Milan, always to the same news, the governor asks them to not get excited so much and these, irritated, go to the governor's palace forcing him to quit. These events became real clashes that led to five days of Milan (18-22 March). The Austrian General Radetzky leaves Milan and takes refuge in the quadrangle (Verona, Mantua, Legnago and Peschiera). Carlo Alberto in the meantime decides to enter Milan to help the Milanese. From all over Italy come to aid of Piedmont or the Milanese (Pope, Tuscany, King of Naples). In Milan, meanwhile we decide in a plebiscite for the annexation of the city of Piedmont and you vote for yes. Pius IX meanwhile withdraws its troops because it says it can not make war on its "sons Austrians" (Catholics). The other territories are TMB withdraw troops but some remain in Milan and trying to regularize them by Carlo Alberto. Meanwhile Radetzky counterattacks and can recapture several towns in the Venice. It signs an armistice and this creates different effects throughout Italy: in Naples there are clashes with the king; in Florence after a provisional government stands a triumvirate; Turin takes over Gioberti who sends in Rome Rosmini trying to create a confederation of Italian; Rome Pius IX appointed a new government headed by a layman to put order in state finances Pontifical however these is killed. Pius IX fled to Gaeta. Failing Armellini declare decayed the temporal power and proclaimed the Roman Republic. And 'chaos. Mazzini enters Rome and proclaims the triumvirate. The French send ship in Civitavecchia. In Rome Garibaldi became military leader of the Roman Republic. The situation, however, he becomes unsustainable and the Roman republic fell. Piedmont while you switch to a new government taking over the war and the control passes to a Polish general. The Austrians cross the Ticino and there is the battle with Carlo Alberto. Following these abdicated in favor of his son Vittorio Emanuele II. He meets with Radetzky and signed an armistice. The conditions are: the Piedmont has to dissolve the bodies of volunteers and to accept a garrison between the Sesia and Ticino. Venice while trying to resist but, surrounded, collapses after a few months. The end of the War of Independence.